# Regression (OLS) - overview

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Regression (OLS)
Two way ANOVA
Independent variablesIndependent variables
One or more quantitative of interval or ratio level and/or one or more categorical with independent groups, transformed into code variablesTwo categorical, the first with $I$ independent groups and the second with $J$ independent groups ($I \geqslant 2$, $J \geqslant 2$)
Dependent variableDependent variable
One quantitative of interval or ratio levelOne quantitative of interval or ratio level
Null hypothesisNull hypothesis
$F$ test for the complete regression model:
• $\beta_1 = \beta_2 = \ldots = \beta_K = 0$
or equivalenty
• The variance explained by all the independent variables together (the complete model) is 0 in the population: $\rho^2 = 0$
$t$ test for individual regression coefficient $\beta_k$:
• $\beta_k = 0$
in the regression equation $\mu_y = \beta_0 + \beta_1 \times x_1 + \beta_2 \times x_2 + \ldots + \beta_K \times x_K$
ANOVA $F$ tests:
• For main and interaction effects together (model): no main effects and interaction effect
• For independent variable A: no main effect for A
• For independent variable B: no main effect for B
• For the interaction term: no interaction effect between A and B
We could also perform $t$ tests for specific contrasts and multiple comparisons, just like we did with one way ANOVA. However, this is more advanced stuff.
Alternative hypothesisAlternative hypothesis
$F$ test for the complete regression model:
• not all population regression coefficients are 0
or equivalenty
• The variance explained by all the independent variables together (the complete model) is larger than 0 in the population: $\rho^2 > 0$
$t$ test for individual $\beta_k$:
• Two sided: $\beta_k \neq 0$
• Right sided: $\beta_k > 0$
• Left sided: $\beta_k < 0$
ANOVA $F$ tests:
• For main and interaction effects together (model): there is a main effect for A, and/or for B, and/or an interaction effect
• For independent variable A: there is a main effect for A
• For independent variable B: there is a main effect for B
• For the interaction term: there is an interaction effect between A and B
AssumptionsAssumptions
• In the population, the residuals are normally distributed at each combination of values of the independent variables
• In the population, the standard deviation $\sigma$ of the residuals is the same for each combination of values of the independent variables (homoscedasticity)
• In the population, the relationship between the independent variables and the mean of the dependent variable $\mu_y$ is linear. If this linearity assumption holds, the mean of the residuals is 0 for each combination of values of the independent variables
• The residuals are independent of one another
• Variables are measured without error
Also pay attention to:
• Multicollinearity
• Outliers
• Within each of the $I \times J$ populations, the scores on the dependent variable are normally distributed
• The standard deviation of the scores on the dependent variable is the same in each of the $I \times J$ populations
• For each of the $I \times J$ groups, the sample is an independent and simple random sample from the population defined by that group. That is, within and between groups, observations are independent of one another
• Equal sample sizes for each group make the interpretation of the ANOVA output easier (unequal sample sizes result in overlap in the sum of squares; this is advanced stuff)
Test statisticTest statistic
$F$ test for the complete regression model:
• \begin{aligned}[t] F &= \dfrac{\sum (\hat{y}_j - \bar{y})^2 / K}{\sum (y_j - \hat{y}_j)^2 / (N - K - 1)}\\ &= \dfrac{\mbox{sum of squares model} / \mbox{degrees of freedom model}}{\mbox{sum of squares error} / \mbox{degrees of freedom error}}\\ &= \dfrac{\mbox{mean square model}}{\mbox{mean square error}} \end{aligned}
where $\hat{y}_j$ is the predicted score on the dependent variable $y$ of subject $j$, $\bar{y}$ is the mean of $y$, $y_j$ is the score on $y$ of subject $j$, $N$ is the total sample size, and $K$ is the number of independent variables
$t$ test for individual $\beta_k$:
• $t = \dfrac{b_k}{SE_{b_k}}$
• If only one independent variable:
$SE_{b_1} = \dfrac{\sqrt{\sum (y_j - \hat{y}_j)^2 / (N - 2)}}{\sqrt{\sum (x_j - \bar{x})^2}} = \dfrac{s}{\sqrt{\sum (x_j - \bar{x})^2}}$, with $s$ the sample standard deviation of the residuals, $x_j$ the score of subject $j$ on the independent variable $x$, and $\bar{x}$ the mean of $x$. For models with more than one independent variable, computing $SE_{b_k}$ becomes complicated
Note 1: mean square model is also known as mean square regression; mean square error is also known as mean square residual
Note 2: if only one independent variable ($K = 1$), the $F$ test for the complete regression model is equivalent to the two sided $t$ test for $\beta_1$
For main and interaction effects together (model):
• $F = \dfrac{\mbox{mean square model}}{\mbox{mean square error}}$
For independent variable A:
• $F = \dfrac{\mbox{mean square A}}{\mbox{mean square error}}$
For independent variable B:
• $F = \dfrac{\mbox{mean square B}}{\mbox{mean square error}}$
For the interaction term:
• $F = \dfrac{\mbox{mean square interaction}}{\mbox{mean square error}}$
Note: mean square error is also known as mean square residual or mean square within
Sample standard deviation of the residuals $s$Pooled standard deviation
\begin{aligned} s &= \sqrt{\dfrac{\sum (y_j - \hat{y}_j)^2}{N - K - 1}}\\ &= \sqrt{\dfrac{\mbox{sum of squares error}}{\mbox{degrees of freedom error}}}\\ &= \sqrt{\mbox{mean square error}} \end{aligned} \begin{aligned} s_p &= \sqrt{\dfrac{\sum\nolimits_{subjects} (\mbox{subject's score} - \mbox{its group mean})^2}{N - (I \times J)}}\\ &= \sqrt{\dfrac{\mbox{sum of squares error}}{\mbox{degrees of freedom error}}}\\ &= \sqrt{\mbox{mean square error}} \end{aligned} Sampling distribution of F and of t if H0 were trueSampling distribution of F if H0 were true Sampling distribution of F: • F distribution with K (df model, numerator) and N - K - 1 (df error, denominator) degrees of freedom Sampling distribution of t: • t distribution with N - K - 1 (df error) degrees of freedom For main and interaction effects together (model): • F distribution with (I - 1) + (J - 1) + (I - 1) \times (J - 1) (df model, numerator) and N - (I \times J) (df error, denominator) degrees of freedom For independent variable A: • F distribution with I - 1 (df A, numerator) and N - (I \times J) (df error, denominator) degrees of freedom For independent variable B: • F distribution with J - 1 (df B, numerator) and N - (I \times J) (df error, denominator) degrees of freedom For the interaction term: • F distribution with (I - 1) \times (J - 1) (df interaction, numerator) and N - (I \times J) (df error, denominator) degrees of freedom Here N is the total sample size Significant?Significant? F test: • Check if F observed in sample is equal to or larger than critical value F^* or • Find p value corresponding to observed F and check if it is equal to or smaller than \alpha t Test two sided: t Test right sided: t Test left sided: • Check if F observed in sample is equal to or larger than critical value F^* or • Find p value corresponding to observed F and check if it is equal to or smaller than \alpha C\% confidence interval for \beta_k and for \mu_y; C\% prediction interval for y_{new}n.a. Confidence interval for \beta_k: • b_k \pm t^* \times SE_{b_k} • If only one independent variable: SE_{b_1} = \dfrac{\sqrt{\sum (y_j - \hat{y}_j)^2 / (N - 2)}}{\sqrt{\sum (x_j - \bar{x})^2}} = \dfrac{s}{\sqrt{\sum (x_j - \bar{x})^2}} Confidence interval for \mu_y, the population mean of y given the values on the independent variables: • \hat{y} \pm t^* \times SE_{\hat{y}} • If only one independent variable: SE_{\hat{y}} = s \sqrt{\dfrac{1}{N} + \dfrac{(x^* - \bar{x})^2}{\sum (x_j - \bar{x})^2}} Prediction interval for y_{new}, the score on y of a future respondent: • \hat{y} \pm t^* \times SE_{y_{new}} • If only one independent variable: SE_{y_{new}} = s \sqrt{1 + \dfrac{1}{N} + \dfrac{(x^* - \bar{x})^2}{\sum (x_j - \bar{x})^2}} In all formulas, the critical value t^* is the value under the t_{N - K - 1} distribution with the area C / 100 between -t^* and t^* (e.g. t^* = 2.086 for a 95% confidence interval when df = 20). - Effect sizeEffect size Complete model: • Proportion variance explained R^2: Proportion variance of the dependent variable y explained by the sample regression equation (the independent variables): \begin{align} R^2 &= \dfrac{\sum (\hat{y}_j - \bar{y})^2}{\sum (y_j - \bar{y})^2}\\ &= \dfrac{\mbox{sum of squares model}}{\mbox{sum of squares total}}\\ &= 1 - \dfrac{\mbox{sum of squares error}}{\mbox{sum of squares total}}\\ &= r(y, \hat{y})^2 \end{align} $$R^2 is the proportion variance explained in the sample by the sample regression equation. It is a positively biased estimate of the proportion variance explained in the population by the population regression equation, \rho^2. If there is only one independent variable, R^2 = r^2: the correlation between the independent variable x and dependent variable y squared. • Wherry's R^2 / shrunken R^2: Corrects for the positive bias in R^2 and is equal to$$R^2_W = 1 - \frac{N - 1}{N - K - 1}(1 - R^2)$$R^2_W is a less biased estimate than R^2 of the proportion variance explained in the population by the population regression equation, \rho^2 • Stein's R^2: Estimates the proportion of variance in y that we expect the current sample regression equation to explain in a different sample drawn from the same population. It is equal to$$R^2_S = 1 - \frac{(N - 1)(N - 2)(N + 1)}{(N - K - 1)(N - K - 2)(N)}(1 - R^2)$$Per independent variable: • Correlation squared r^2_k: the proportion of the total variance in the dependent variable y that is explained by the independent variable x_k, not corrected for the other independent variables in the model • Semi-partial correlation squared sr^2_k: the proportion of the total variance in the dependent variable y that is uniquely explained by the independent variable x_k, beyond the part that is already explained by the other independent variables in the model • Partial correlation squared pr^2_k: the proportion of the variance in the dependent variable y not explained by the other independent variables, that is uniquely explained by the independent variable x_k • Proportion variance explained R^2: Proportion variance of the dependent variable y explained by the independent variables and the interaction effect together:$$ \begin{align} R^2 &= \dfrac{\mbox{sum of squares model}}{\mbox{sum of squares total}} \end{align} $$R^2 is the proportion variance explained in the sample. It is a positively biased estimate of the proportion variance explained in the population. • Proportion variance explained \eta^2: Proportion variance of the dependent variable y explained by an independent variable or interaction effect:$$ \begin{align} \eta^2_A &= \dfrac{\mbox{sum of squares A}}{\mbox{sum of squares total}}\\ \\ \eta^2_B &= \dfrac{\mbox{sum of squares B}}{\mbox{sum of squares total}}\\ \\ \eta^2_{int} &= \dfrac{\mbox{sum of squares int}}{\mbox{sum of squares total}} \end{align} $$\eta^2 is the proportion variance explained in the sample. It is a positively biased estimate of the proportion variance explained in the population. • Proportion variance explained \omega^2: Corrects for the positive bias in \eta^2 and is equal to:$$ \begin{align} \omega^2_A &= \dfrac{\mbox{sum of squares A} - \mbox{degrees of freedom A} \times \mbox{mean square error}}{\mbox{sum of squares total} + \mbox{mean square error}}\\ \\ \omega^2_B &= \dfrac{\mbox{sum of squares B} - \mbox{degrees of freedom B} \times \mbox{mean square error}}{\mbox{sum of squares total} + \mbox{mean square error}}\\ \\ \omega^2_{int} &= \dfrac{\mbox{sum of squares int} - \mbox{degrees of freedom int} \times \mbox{mean square error}}{\mbox{sum of squares total} + \mbox{mean square error}}\\ \end{align} $$\omega^2 is a better estimate of the explained variance in the population than \eta^2. Only for balanced designs (equal sample sizes). • Proportion variance explained \eta^2_{partial}:$$ \begin{align} \eta^2_{partial\,A} &= \frac{\mbox{sum of squares A}}{\mbox{sum of squares A} + \mbox{sum of squares error}}\\ \\ \eta^2_{partial\,B} &= \frac{\mbox{sum of squares B}}{\mbox{sum of squares B} + \mbox{sum of squares error}}\\ \\ \eta^2_{partial\,int} &= \frac{\mbox{sum of squares int}}{\mbox{sum of squares int} + \mbox{sum of squares error}} \end{align}$ANOVA tableANOVA table n.a.Equivalent to -OLS regression with two, categorical independent variables and the interaction term, transformed into$(I - 1)$+$(J - 1)$+$(I - 1) \times (J - 1)\$ code variables.
Example contextExample context
Can mental health be predicted from fysical health, economic class, and gender?Is the average mental health score different between people from a low, moderate, and high economic class? And is the average mental health score different between men and women? And is there an interaction effect between economic class and gender?
SPSSSPSS
Analyze > Regression > Linear...
• Put your dependent variable in the box below Dependent and your independent (predictor) variables in the box below Independent(s)
Analyze > General Linear Model > Univariate...
• Put your dependent (quantitative) variable in the box below Dependent Variable and your two independent (grouping) variables in the box below Fixed Factor(s)
JamoviJamovi
Regression > Linear Regression
• Put your dependent variable in the box below Dependent Variable and your independent variables of interval/ratio level in the box below Covariates
• If you also have code (dummy) variables as independent variables, you can put these in the box below Covariates as well
• Instead of transforming your categorical independent variable(s) into code variables, you can also put the untransformed categorical independent variables in the box below Factors. Jamovi will then make the code variables for you 'behind the scenes'
ANOVA > ANOVA
• Put your dependent (quantitative) variable in the box below Dependent Variable and your two independent (grouping) variables in the box below Fixed Factors
Practice questionsPractice questions