Logistic regression  overview
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Logistic regression  Two sample $t$ test  equal variances not assumed  Chisquared test for the relationship between two categorical variables 


Independent variables  Independent variable  Independent /column variable  
One or more quantitative of interval or ratio level and/or one or more categorical with independent groups, transformed into code variables  One categorical with 2 independent groups  One categorical with $I$ independent groups ($I \geqslant 2$)  
Dependent variable  Dependent variable  Dependent /row variable  
One categorical with 2 independent groups  One quantitative of interval or ratio level  One categorical with $J$ independent groups ($J \geqslant 2$)  
Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  
Model chisquared test for the complete regression model:
 $\mu_1 = \mu_2$
$\mu_1$ is the unknown mean in population 1, $\mu_2$ is the unknown mean in population 2 
 
Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  
Model chisquared test for the complete regression model:
 Two sided: $\mu_1 \neq \mu_2$ Right sided: $\mu_1 > \mu_2$ Left sided: $\mu_1 < \mu_2$ 
 
Assumptions  Assumptions  Assumptions  


 
Test statistic  Test statistic  Test statistic  
Model chisquared test for the complete regression model:
The wald statistic can be defined in two ways:
Likelihood ratio chisquared test for individual $\beta_k$:
 $t = \dfrac{(\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2)  0}{\sqrt{\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}}} = \dfrac{\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2}{\sqrt{\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}}}$
$\bar{y}_1$ is the sample mean in group 1, $\bar{y}_2$ is the sample mean in group 2, $s^2_1$ is the sample variance in group 1, $s^2_2$ is the sample variance in group 2, $n_1$ is the sample size of group 1, $n_2$ is the sample size of group 2. The 0 represents the difference in population means according to H0. The denominator $\sqrt{\frac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \frac{s^2_2}{n_2}}$ is the standard error of the sampling distribution of $\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2$. The $t$ value indicates how many standard errors $\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2$ is removed from 0. Note: we could just as well compute $\bar{y}_2  \bar{y}_1$ in the numerator, but then the left sided alternative becomes $\mu_2 < \mu_1$, and the right sided alternative becomes $\mu_2 > \mu_1$  $X^2 = \sum{\frac{(\mbox{observed cell count}  \mbox{expected cell count})^2}{\mbox{expected cell count}}}$
where for each cell, the expected cell count = $\dfrac{\mbox{row total} \times \mbox{column total}}{\mbox{total sample size}}$, the observed cell count is the observed sample count in that same cell, and the sum is over all $I \times J$ cells  
Sampling distribution of $X^2$ and of the Wald statistic if H0 were true  Sampling distribution of $t$ if H0 were true  Sampling distribution of $X^2$ if H0 were true  
Sampling distribution of $X^2$, as computed in the model chisquared test for the complete model:
 Approximately a $t$ distribution with $k$ degrees of freedom, with $k$ equal to $k = \dfrac{\Bigg(\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}\Bigg)^2}{\dfrac{1}{n_1  1} \Bigg(\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1}\Bigg)^2 + \dfrac{1}{n_2  1} \Bigg(\dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}\Bigg)^2}$ or $k$ = the smaller of $n_1$  1 and $n_2$  1 First definition of $k$ is used by computer programs, second definition is often used for hand calculations  Approximately a chisquared distribution with $(I  1) \times (J  1)$ degrees of freedom  
Significant?  Significant?  Significant?  
For the model chisquared test for the complete regression model and likelihood ratio chisquared test for individual $\beta_k$:
 Two sided:

 
Waldtype approximate $C\%$ confidence interval for $\beta_k$  Approximate $C\%$ confidence interval for $\mu_1  \mu_2$  n.a.  
$b_k \pm z^* \times SE_{b_k}$ where $z^*$ is the value under the normal curve with the area $C / 100$ between $z^*$ and $z^*$ (e.g. $z^*$ = 1.96 for a 95% confidence interval)  $(\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2) \pm t^* \times \sqrt{\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}}$
where the critical value $t^*$ is the value under the $t_{k}$ distribution with the area $C / 100$ between $t^*$ and $t^*$ (e.g. $t^*$ = 2.086 for a 95% confidence interval when df = 20) The confidence interval for $\mu_1  \mu_2$ can also be used as significance test.    
Goodness of fit measure $R^2_L$  n.a.  n.a.  
$R^2_L = \dfrac{D_{null}  D_K}{D_{null}}$ There are several other goodness of fit measures in logistic regression. In logistic regression, there is no single agreed upon measure of goodness of fit.      
n.a.  Visual representation  n.a.  
    
Example context  Example context  Example context  
Can body mass index, stress level, and gender predict whether people get diagnosed with diabetes?  Is the average mental health score different between men and women?  Is there an association between economic class and gender? Is the distribution of economic class different between men and women?  
SPSS  SPSS  SPSS  
Analyze > Regression > Binary Logistic...
 Analyze > Compare Means > IndependentSamples T Test...
 Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs...
 
Jamovi  Jamovi  Jamovi  
Regression > 2 Outcomes  Binomial
 TTests > Independent Samples TTest
 Frequencies > Independent Samples  $\chi^2$ test of association
 
Practice questions  Practice questions  Practice questions  