ANCOVA: overview

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ANCOVA
$z$ test for a single proportion
Independent variablesIndependent variable
One or more categorical with independent groups, and one or more quantitative control variables of interval or ratio level (covariates)None
Dependent variableDependent variable
One quantitative of interval or ratio levelOne categorical with 2 independent groups
THIS TABLE IS YET TO BE COMPLETEDNull hypothesis
-$\pi = \pi_0$
$\pi$ is the population proportion of "successes"; $\pi_0$ is the population proportion of successes according to the null hypothesis
n.a.Alternative hypothesis
-Two sided: $\pi \neq \pi_0$
Right sided: $\pi > \pi_0$
Left sided: $\pi < \pi_0$
n.a.Assumptions
-
  • Sample size is large enough for $z$ to be approximately normally distributed. Rule of thumb:
    • Significance test: $N \times \pi_0$ and $N \times (1 - \pi_0)$ are each larger than 10
    • Regular (large sample) 90%, 95%, or 99% confidence interval: number of successes and number of failures in sample are each 15 or more
    • Plus four 90%, 95%, or 99% confidence interval: total sample size is 10 or more
  • Sample is a simple random sample from the population. That is, observations are independent of one another
If the sample size is too small for $z$ to be approximately normally distributed, the binomial test for a single proportion should be used.
n.a.Test statistic
-$z = \dfrac{p - \pi_0}{\sqrt{\dfrac{\pi_0(1 - \pi_0)}{N}}}$
$p$ is the sample proportion of successes: $\dfrac{X}{N}$, $N$ is the sample size
n.a.Sampling distribution of $z$ if H0 were true
-Approximately standard normal
n.a.Significant?
-Two sided: Right sided: Left sided:
n.a.Approximate $C\%$ confidence interval for $\pi$
-Regular (large sample):
  • $p \pm z^* \times \sqrt{\dfrac{p(1 - p)}{N}}$
    where $z^*$ is the value under the normal curve with the area $C / 100$ between $-z^*$ and $z^*$ (e.g. $z^*$ = 1.96 for a 95% confidence interval)
With plus four method:
  • $p_{plus} \pm z^* \times \sqrt{\dfrac{p_{plus}(1 - p_{plus})}{N + 4}}$
    where $p_{plus} = \dfrac{X + 2}{N + 4}$ and $z^*$ is the value under the normal curve with the area $C / 100$ between $-z^*$ and $z^*$ (e.g. $z^*$ = 1.96 for a 95% confidence interval)
n.a.Equivalent to
-
  • When testing two sided: goodness of fit test, with categorical variable with 2 levels
  • When $N$ is large, the $p$ value from the $z$ test for a single proportion approaches the $p$ value from the binomial test for a single proportion. The $z$ test for a single proportion is just a large sample approximation of the binomial test for a single proportion.
n.a.Example context
-Is the proportion smokers amongst office workers different from $\pi_0 = .2$? Use the normal approximation for the sampling distribution of the test statistic.
n.a.SPSS
-Analyze > Nonparametric Tests > Legacy Dialogs > Binomial...
  • Put your dichotomous variable in the box below Test Variable List
  • Fill in the value for $\pi_0$ in the box next to Test Proportion
If computation time allows, SPSS will give you the exact $p$ value based on the binomial distribution, rather than the approximate $p$ value based on the normal distribution
n.a.Jamovi
-Frequencies > 2 Outcomes - Binomial test
  • Put your dichotomous variable in the white box at the right
  • Fill in the value for $\pi_0$ in the box next to Test value
  • Under Hypothesis, select your alternative hypothesis
Jamovi will give you the exact $p$ value based on the binomial distribution, rather than the approximate $p$ value based on the normal distribution
Practice questionsPractice questions