ANCOVA: overview
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ANCOVA  Two sample $t$ test  equal variances not assumed 


Independent variables  Independent variable  
One or more categorical with independent groups, and one or more quantitative control variables of interval or ratio level (covariates)  One categorical with 2 independent groups  
Dependent variable  Dependent variable  
One quantitative of interval or ratio level  One quantitative of interval or ratio level  
THIS TABLE IS YET TO BE COMPLETED  Null hypothesis  
  $\mu_1 = \mu_2$
$\mu_1$ is the unknown mean in population 1, $\mu_2$ is the unknown mean in population 2  
n.a.  Alternative hypothesis  
  Two sided: $\mu_1 \neq \mu_2$ Right sided: $\mu_1 > \mu_2$ Left sided: $\mu_1 < \mu_2$  
n.a.  Assumptions  
 
 
n.a.  Test statistic  
  $t = \dfrac{(\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2)  0}{\sqrt{\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}}} = \dfrac{\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2}{\sqrt{\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}}}$
$\bar{y}_1$ is the sample mean in group 1, $\bar{y}_2$ is the sample mean in group 2, $s^2_1$ is the sample variance in group 1, $s^2_2$ is the sample variance in group 2, $n_1$ is the sample size of group 1, $n_2$ is the sample size of group 2. The 0 represents the difference in population means according to H0. The denominator $\sqrt{\frac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \frac{s^2_2}{n_2}}$ is the standard error of the sampling distribution of $\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2$. The $t$ value indicates how many standard errors $\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2$ is removed from 0. Note: we could just as well compute $\bar{y}_2  \bar{y}_1$ in the numerator, but then the left sided alternative becomes $\mu_2 < \mu_1$, and the right sided alternative becomes $\mu_2 > \mu_1$  
n.a.  Sampling distribution of $t$ if H0 were true  
  Approximately a $t$ distribution with $k$ degrees of freedom, with $k$ equal to $k = \dfrac{\Bigg(\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}\Bigg)^2}{\dfrac{1}{n_1  1} \Bigg(\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1}\Bigg)^2 + \dfrac{1}{n_2  1} \Bigg(\dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}\Bigg)^2}$ or $k$ = the smaller of $n_1$  1 and $n_2$  1 First definition of $k$ is used by computer programs, second definition is often used for hand calculations  
n.a.  Significant?  
  Two sided:
 
n.a.  Approximate $C\%$ confidence interval for $\mu_1  \mu_2$  
  $(\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2) \pm t^* \times \sqrt{\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}}$
where the critical value $t^*$ is the value under the $t_{k}$ distribution with the area $C / 100$ between $t^*$ and $t^*$ (e.g. $t^*$ = 2.086 for a 95% confidence interval when df = 20) The confidence interval for $\mu_1  \mu_2$ can also be used as significance test.  
n.a.  Visual representation  
  
n.a.  Example context  
  Is the average mental health score different between men and women?  
n.a.  SPSS  
  Analyze > Compare Means > IndependentSamples T Test...
 
n.a.  Jamovi  
  TTests > Independent Samples TTest
 
Practice questions  Practice questions  