One sample t test for the mean: overview
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One sample $t$ test for the mean 


Independent variable  
None  
Dependent variable  
One quantitative of interval or ratio level  
Null hypothesis  
$\mu = \mu_0$
$\mu$ is the unknown population mean; $\mu_0$ is the population mean according to H0  
Alternative hypothesis  
Two sided: $\mu \neq \mu_0$ Right sided: $\mu > \mu_0$ Left sided: $\mu < \mu_0$  
Assumptions  
 
Test statistic  
$t = \dfrac{\bar{y}  \mu_0}{s / \sqrt{N}}$
$\bar{y}$ is the sample mean, $\mu_0$ is the population mean according to H0, $s$ is the sample standard deviation, $N$ is the sample size. The denominator $s / \sqrt{N}$ is the standard error of the sampling distribution of $\bar{y}$. The $t$ value indicates how many standard errors $\bar{y}$ is removed from $\mu_0$  
Sampling distribution of $t$ if H0 were true  
$t$ Distribution with $N  1$ degrees of freedom  
Significant?  
Two sided:
 
$C\%$ confidence interval for $\mu$  
$\bar{y} \pm t^* \times \dfrac{s}{\sqrt{N}}$
where the critical value $t^*$ is the value under the $t_{N1}$ distribution with the area $C / 100$ between $t^*$ and $t^*$ (e.g. $t^*$ = 2.086 for a 95% confidence interval when df = 20) The confidence interval for $\mu$ can also be used as significance test.  
Effect size  
Cohen's $d$: Standardized difference between the sample mean and $\mu_0$: $$d = \frac{\bar{y}  \mu_0}{s}$$ Indicates how many standard deviations $s$ the sample mean $\bar{y}$ is removed from $\mu_0$  
Visual representation  
Example context  
Is the average mental health score of office workers different from $\mu_0$ = 50?  
Pratice questions  