Two way ANOVA  overview
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Two way ANOVA  Friedman test  Two sample $t$ test  equal variances not assumed  Chisquared test for the relationship between two categorical variables  Spearman's rho  Two sample $t$ test  equal variances assumed 


Independent/grouping variables  Independent/grouping variable  Independent/grouping variable  Independent /column variable  Variable 1  Independent/grouping variable  
Two categorical, the first with $I$ independent groups and the second with $J$ independent groups ($I \geqslant 2$, $J \geqslant 2$)  One within subject factor ($\geq 2$ related groups)  One categorical with 2 independent groups  One categorical with $I$ independent groups ($I \geqslant 2$)  One of ordinal level  One categorical with 2 independent groups  
Dependent variable  Dependent variable  Dependent variable  Dependent /row variable  Variable 2  Dependent variable  
One quantitative of interval or ratio level  One of ordinal level  One quantitative of interval or ratio level  One categorical with $J$ independent groups ($J \geqslant 2$)  One of ordinal level  One quantitative of interval or ratio level  
Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  
ANOVA $F$ tests:
 H_{0}: the population scores in any of the related groups are not systematically higher or lower than the population scores in any of the other related groups
Usually the related groups are the different measurement points. Several different formulations of the null hypothesis can be found in the literature, and we do not agree with all of them. Make sure you (also) learn the one that is given in your text book or by your teacher.  H_{0}: $\mu_1 = \mu_2$
Here $\mu_1$ is the population mean for group 1, and $\mu_2$ is the population mean for group 2.  H_{0}: there is no association between the row and column variable More precisely, if there are $I$ independent random samples of size $n_i$ from each of $I$ populations, defined by the independent variable:
 H_{0}: $\rho_s = 0$
Here $\rho_s$ is the Spearman correlation in the population. The Spearman correlation is a measure for the strength and direction of the monotonic relationship between two variables of at least ordinal measurement level. In words, the null hypothesis would be: H_{0}: there is no monotonic relationship between the two variables in the population.  H_{0}: $\mu_1 = \mu_2$
Here $\mu_1$ is the population mean for group 1, and $\mu_2$ is the population mean for group 2.  
Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  
ANOVA $F$ tests:
 H_{1}: the population scores in some of the related groups are systematically higher or lower than the population scores in other related groups  H_{1} two sided: $\mu_1 \neq \mu_2$ H_{1} right sided: $\mu_1 > \mu_2$ H_{1} left sided: $\mu_1 < \mu_2$  H_{1}: there is an association between the row and column variable More precisely, if there are $I$ independent random samples of size $n_i$ from each of $I$ populations, defined by the independent variable:
 H_{1} two sided: $\rho_s \neq 0$ H_{1} right sided: $\rho_s > 0$ H_{1} left sided: $\rho_s < 0$  H_{1} two sided: $\mu_1 \neq \mu_2$ H_{1} right sided: $\mu_1 > \mu_2$ H_{1} left sided: $\mu_1 < \mu_2$  
Assumptions  Assumptions  Assumptions  Assumptions  Assumptions  Assumptions  





 
Test statistic  Test statistic  Test statistic  Test statistic  Test statistic  Test statistic  
For main and interaction effects together (model):
 $Q = \dfrac{12}{N \times k(k + 1)} \sum R^2_i  3 \times N(k + 1)$
Here $N$ is the number of 'blocks' (usually the subjects  so if you have 4 repeated measurements for 60 subjects, $N$ equals 60), $k$ is the number of related groups (usually the number of repeated measurements), and $R_i$ is the sum of ranks in group $i$. Remember that multiplication precedes addition, so first compute $\frac{12}{N \times k(k + 1)} \times \sum R^2_i$ and then subtract $3 \times N(k + 1)$. Note: if ties are present in the data, the formula for $Q$ is more complicated.  $t = \dfrac{(\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2)  0}{\sqrt{\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}}} = \dfrac{\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2}{\sqrt{\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}}}$
Here $\bar{y}_1$ is the sample mean in group 1, $\bar{y}_2$ is the sample mean in group 2, $s^2_1$ is the sample variance in group 1, $s^2_2$ is the sample variance in group 2, $n_1$ is the sample size of group 1, and $n_2$ is the sample size of group 2. The 0 represents the difference in population means according to the null hypothesis. The denominator $\sqrt{\frac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \frac{s^2_2}{n_2}}$ is the standard error of the sampling distribution of $\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2$. The $t$ value indicates how many standard errors $\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2$ is removed from 0. Note: we could just as well compute $\bar{y}_2  \bar{y}_1$ in the numerator, but then the left sided alternative becomes $\mu_2 < \mu_1$, and the right sided alternative becomes $\mu_2 > \mu_1$.  $X^2 = \sum{\frac{(\mbox{observed cell count}  \mbox{expected cell count})^2}{\mbox{expected cell count}}}$
Here for each cell, the expected cell count = $\dfrac{\mbox{row total} \times \mbox{column total}}{\mbox{total sample size}}$, the observed cell count is the observed sample count in that same cell, and the sum is over all $I \times J$ cells.  $t = \dfrac{r_s \times \sqrt{N  2}}{\sqrt{1  r_s^2}} $ Here $r_s$ is the sample Spearman correlation and $N$ is the sample size. The sample Spearman correlation $r_s$ is equal to the Pearson correlation applied to the rank scores.  $t = \dfrac{(\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2)  0}{s_p\sqrt{\dfrac{1}{n_1} + \dfrac{1}{n_2}}} = \dfrac{\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2}{s_p\sqrt{\dfrac{1}{n_1} + \dfrac{1}{n_2}}}$
Here $\bar{y}_1$ is the sample mean in group 1, $\bar{y}_2$ is the sample mean in group 2, $s_p$ is the pooled standard deviation, $n_1$ is the sample size of group 1, and $n_2$ is the sample size of group 2. The 0 represents the difference in population means according to the null hypothesis. The denominator $s_p\sqrt{\dfrac{1}{n_1} + \dfrac{1}{n_2}}$ is the standard error of the sampling distribution of $\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2$. The $t$ value indicates how many standard errors $\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2$ is removed from 0. Note: we could just as well compute $\bar{y}_2  \bar{y}_1$ in the numerator, but then the left sided alternative becomes $\mu_2 < \mu_1$, and the right sided alternative becomes $\mu_2 > \mu_1$.  
Pooled standard deviation  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  Pooled standard deviation  
$ \begin{aligned} s_p &= \sqrt{\dfrac{\sum\nolimits_{subjects} (\mbox{subject's score}  \mbox{its group mean})^2}{N  (I \times J)}}\\ &= \sqrt{\dfrac{\mbox{sum of squares error}}{\mbox{degrees of freedom error}}}\\ &= \sqrt{\mbox{mean square error}} \end{aligned} $          $s_p = \sqrt{\dfrac{(n_1  1) \times s^2_1 + (n_2  1) \times s^2_2}{n_1 + n_2  2}}$  
Sampling distribution of $F$ if H_{0} were true  Sampling distribution of $Q$ if H_{0} were true  Sampling distribution of $t$ if H_{0} were true  Sampling distribution of $X^2$ if H_{0} were true  Sampling distribution of $t$ if H_{0} were true  Sampling distribution of $t$ if H_{0} were true  
For main and interaction effects together (model):
 If the number of blocks $N$ is large, approximately the chisquared distribution with $k  1$ degrees of freedom.
For small samples, the exact distribution of $Q$ should be used.  Approximately the $t$ distribution with $k$ degrees of freedom, with $k$ equal to $k = \dfrac{\Bigg(\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}\Bigg)^2}{\dfrac{1}{n_1  1} \Bigg(\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1}\Bigg)^2 + \dfrac{1}{n_2  1} \Bigg(\dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}\Bigg)^2}$ or $k$ = the smaller of $n_1$  1 and $n_2$  1 First definition of $k$ is used by computer programs, second definition is often used for hand calculations.  Approximately the chisquared distribution with $(I  1) \times (J  1)$ degrees of freedom  Approximately the $t$ distribution with $N  2$ degrees of freedom  $t$ distribution with $n_1 + n_2  2$ degrees of freedom  
Significant?  Significant?  Significant?  Significant?  Significant?  Significant?  
 If the number of blocks $N$ is large, the table with critical $X^2$ values can be used. If we denote $X^2 = Q$:
 Two sided:

 Two sided:
 Two sided:
 
n.a.  n.a.  Approximate $C\%$ confidence interval for $\mu_1  \mu_2$  n.a.  n.a.  $C\%$ confidence interval for $\mu_1  \mu_2$  
    $(\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2) \pm t^* \times \sqrt{\dfrac{s^2_1}{n_1} + \dfrac{s^2_2}{n_2}}$
where the critical value $t^*$ is the value under the $t_{k}$ distribution with the area $C / 100$ between $t^*$ and $t^*$ (e.g. $t^*$ = 2.086 for a 95% confidence interval when df = 20). The confidence interval for $\mu_1  \mu_2$ can also be used as significance test.      $(\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2) \pm t^* \times s_p\sqrt{\dfrac{1}{n_1} + \dfrac{1}{n_2}}$
where the critical value $t^*$ is the value under the $t_{n_1 + n_2  2}$ distribution with the area $C / 100$ between $t^*$ and $t^*$ (e.g. $t^*$ = 2.086 for a 95% confidence interval when df = 20). The confidence interval for $\mu_1  \mu_2$ can also be used as significance test.  
Effect size  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  Effect size  
         Cohen's $d$: Standardized difference between the mean in group $1$ and in group $2$: $$d = \frac{\bar{y}_1  \bar{y}_2}{s_p}$$ Cohen's $d$ indicates how many standard deviations $s_p$ the two sample means are removed from each other.  
n.a.  n.a.  Visual representation  n.a.  n.a.  Visual representation  
        
ANOVA table  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  
          
Equivalent to  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  n.a.  Equivalent to  
OLS regression with two categorical independent variables and the interaction term, transformed into $(I  1)$ + $(J  1)$ + $(I  1) \times (J  1)$ code variables.          One way ANOVA with an independent variable with 2 levels ($I$ = 2):
 
Example context  Example context  Example context  Example context  Example context  Example context  
Is the average mental health score different between people from a low, moderate, and high economic class? And is the average mental health score different between men and women? And is there an interaction effect between economic class and gender?  Is there a difference in depression level between measurement point 1 (preintervention), measurement point 2 (1 week postintervention), and measurement point 3 (6 weeks postintervention)?  Is the average mental health score different between men and women?  Is there an association between economic class and gender? Is the distribution of economic class different between men and women?  Is there a monotonic relationship between physical health and mental health?  Is the average mental health score different between men and women? Assume that in the population, the standard deviation of mental health scores is equal amongst men and women.  
SPSS  SPSS  SPSS  SPSS  SPSS  SPSS  
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ANOVA > ANOVA
 ANOVA > Repeated Measures ANOVA  Friedman
 TTests > Independent Samples TTest
 Frequencies > Independent Samples  $\chi^2$ test of association
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 TTests > Independent Samples TTest
 
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