Goodness of fit test  overview
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Goodness of fit test  Paired sample $t$ test  KruskalWallis test 


Independent variable  Independent variable  Independent/grouping variable  
None  2 paired groups  One categorical with $I$ independent groups ($I \geqslant 2$)  
Dependent variable  Dependent variable  Dependent variable  
One categorical with $J$ independent groups ($J \geqslant 2$)  One quantitative of interval or ratio level  One of ordinal level  
Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  
 H_{0}: $\mu = \mu_0$
Here $\mu$ is the population mean of the difference scores, and $\mu_0$ is the population mean of the difference scores according to the null hypothesis, which is usually 0. A difference score is the difference between the first score of a pair and the second score of a pair.  If the dependent variable is measured on a continuous scale and the shape of the distribution of the dependent variable is the same in all $I$ populations:
Formulation 1:
 
Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  
 H_{1} two sided: $\mu \neq \mu_0$ H_{1} right sided: $\mu > \mu_0$ H_{1} left sided: $\mu < \mu_0$  If the dependent variable is measured on a continuous scale and the shape of the distribution of the dependent variable is the same in all $I$ populations:
Formulation 1:
 
Assumptions  Assumptions  Assumptions  


 
Test statistic  Test statistic  Test statistic  
$X^2 = \sum{\frac{(\mbox{observed cell count}  \mbox{expected cell count})^2}{\mbox{expected cell count}}}$
Here the expected cell count for one cell = $N \times \pi_j$, the observed cell count is the observed sample count in that same cell, and the sum is over all $J$ cells.  $t = \dfrac{\bar{y}  \mu_0}{s / \sqrt{N}}$
Here $\bar{y}$ is the sample mean of the difference scores, $\mu_0$ is the population mean of the difference scores according to the null hypothesis, $s$ is the sample standard deviation of the difference scores, and $N$ is the sample size (number of difference scores). The denominator $s / \sqrt{N}$ is the standard error of the sampling distribution of $\bar{y}$. The $t$ value indicates how many standard errors $\bar{y}$ is removed from $\mu_0$.  $H = \dfrac{12}{N (N + 1)} \sum \dfrac{R^2_i}{n_i}  3(N + 1)$  
Sampling distribution of $X^2$ if H_{0} were true  Sampling distribution of $t$ if H_{0} were true  Sampling distribution of $H$ if H_{0} were true  
Approximately the chisquared distribution with $J  1$ degrees of freedom  $t$ distribution with $N  1$ degrees of freedom  For large samples, approximately the chisquared distribution with $I  1$ degrees of freedom. For small samples, the exact distribution of $H$ should be used.  
Significant?  Significant?  Significant?  
 Two sided:
 For large samples, the table with critical $X^2$ values can be used. If we denote $X^2 = H$:
 
n.a.  $C\%$ confidence interval for $\mu$  n.a.  
  $\bar{y} \pm t^* \times \dfrac{s}{\sqrt{N}}$
where the critical value $t^*$ is the value under the $t_{N1}$ distribution with the area $C / 100$ between $t^*$ and $t^*$ (e.g. $t^*$ = 2.086 for a 95% confidence interval when df = 20). The confidence interval for $\mu$ can also be used as significance test.    
n.a.  Effect size  n.a.  
  Cohen's $d$: Standardized difference between the sample mean of the difference scores and $\mu_0$: $$d = \frac{\bar{y}  \mu_0}{s}$$ Cohen's $d$ indicates how many standard deviations $s$ the sample mean of the difference scores $\bar{y}$ is removed from $\mu_0.$    
n.a.  Visual representation  n.a.  
    
n.a.  Equivalent to  n.a.  
 
   
Example context  Example context  Example context  
Is the proportion of people with a low, moderate, and high social economic status in the population different from $\pi_{low} = 0.2,$ $\pi_{moderate} = 0.6,$ and $\pi_{high} = 0.2$?  Is the average difference between the mental health scores before and after an intervention different from $\mu_0 = 0$?  Do people from different religions tend to score differently on social economic status?  
SPSS  SPSS  SPSS  
Analyze > Nonparametric Tests > Legacy Dialogs > Chisquare...
 Analyze > Compare Means > PairedSamples T Test...
 Analyze > Nonparametric Tests > Legacy Dialogs > K Independent Samples...
 
Jamovi  Jamovi  Jamovi  
Frequencies > N Outcomes  $\chi^2$ Goodness of fit
 TTests > Paired Samples TTest
 ANOVA > One Way ANOVA  KruskalWallis
 
Practice questions  Practice questions  Practice questions  