# Goodness of fit test - overview

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Goodness of fit test
Paired sample $t$ test
One sample $t$ test for the mean
Independent variableIndependent variableIndependent variable
None2 paired groupsNone
Dependent variableDependent variableDependent variable
One categorical with $J$ independent groups ($J \geqslant 2$)One quantitative of interval or ratio levelOne quantitative of interval or ratio level
Null hypothesisNull hypothesisNull hypothesis
• H0: the population proportions in each of the $J$ conditions are $\pi_1$, $\pi_2$, $\ldots$, $\pi_J$
or equivalently
• H0: the probability of drawing an observation from condition 1 is $\pi_1$, the probability of drawing an observation from condition 2 is $\pi_2$, $\ldots$, the probability of drawing an observation from condition $J$ is $\pi_J$
H0: $\mu = \mu_0$

Here $\mu$ is the population mean of the difference scores, and $\mu_0$ is the population mean of the difference scores according to the null hypothesis, which is usually 0. A difference score is the difference between the first score of a pair and the second score of a pair.
H0: $\mu = \mu_0$

Here $\mu$ is the population mean, and $\mu_0$ is the population mean according to the null hypothesis.
Alternative hypothesisAlternative hypothesisAlternative hypothesis
• H1: the population proportions are not all as specified under the null hypothesis
or equivalently
• H1: the probabilities of drawing an observation from each of the conditions are not all as specified under the null hypothesis
H1 two sided: $\mu \neq \mu_0$
H1 right sided: $\mu > \mu_0$
H1 left sided: $\mu < \mu_0$
H1 two sided: $\mu \neq \mu_0$
H1 right sided: $\mu > \mu_0$
H1 left sided: $\mu < \mu_0$
AssumptionsAssumptionsAssumptions
• Sample size is large enough for $X^2$ to be approximately chi-squared distributed. Rule of thumb: all $J$ expected cell counts are 5 or more
• Sample is a simple random sample from the population. That is, observations are independent of one another
• Difference scores are normally distributed in the population
• Sample of difference scores is a simple random sample from the population of difference scores. That is, difference scores are independent of one another
• Scores are normally distributed in the population
• Sample is a simple random sample from the population. That is, observations are independent of one another
Test statisticTest statisticTest statistic
$X^2 = \sum{\frac{(\mbox{observed cell count} - \mbox{expected cell count})^2}{\mbox{expected cell count}}}$
Here the expected cell count for one cell = $N \times \pi_j$, the observed cell count is the observed sample count in that same cell, and the sum is over all $J$ cells.
$t = \dfrac{\bar{y} - \mu_0}{s / \sqrt{N}}$
Here $\bar{y}$ is the sample mean of the difference scores, $\mu_0$ is the population mean of the difference scores according to the null hypothesis, $s$ is the sample standard deviation of the difference scores, and $N$ is the sample size (number of difference scores).

The denominator $s / \sqrt{N}$ is the standard error of the sampling distribution of $\bar{y}$. The $t$ value indicates how many standard errors $\bar{y}$ is removed from $\mu_0$.
$t = \dfrac{\bar{y} - \mu_0}{s / \sqrt{N}}$
Here $\bar{y}$ is the sample mean, $\mu_0$ is the population mean according to the null hypothesis, $s$ is the sample standard deviation, and $N$ is the sample size.

The denominator $s / \sqrt{N}$ is the standard error of the sampling distribution of $\bar{y}$. The $t$ value indicates how many standard errors $\bar{y}$ is removed from $\mu_0$.
Sampling distribution of $X^2$ if H0 were trueSampling distribution of $t$ if H0 were trueSampling distribution of $t$ if H0 were true
Approximately the chi-squared distribution with $J - 1$ degrees of freedom$t$ distribution with $N - 1$ degrees of freedom$t$ distribution with $N - 1$ degrees of freedom
Significant?Significant?Significant?
• Check if $X^2$ observed in sample is equal to or larger than critical value $X^{2*}$ or
• Find $p$ value corresponding to observed $X^2$ and check if it is equal to or smaller than $\alpha$
Two sided:
Right sided:
Left sided:
Two sided:
Right sided:
Left sided:
n.a.$C\%$ confidence interval for $\mu$$C\% confidence interval for \mu -\bar{y} \pm t^* \times \dfrac{s}{\sqrt{N}} where the critical value t^* is the value under the t_{N-1} distribution with the area C / 100 between -t^* and t^* (e.g. t^* = 2.086 for a 95% confidence interval when df = 20). The confidence interval for \mu can also be used as significance test. \bar{y} \pm t^* \times \dfrac{s}{\sqrt{N}} where the critical value t^* is the value under the t_{N-1} distribution with the area C / 100 between -t^* and t^* (e.g. t^* = 2.086 for a 95% confidence interval when df = 20). The confidence interval for \mu can also be used as significance test. n.a.Effect sizeEffect size -Cohen's d: Standardized difference between the sample mean of the difference scores and \mu_0:$$d = \frac{\bar{y} - \mu_0}{s}$$Cohen's d indicates how many standard deviations s the sample mean of the difference scores \bar{y} is removed from \mu_0. Cohen's d: Standardized difference between the sample mean and \mu_0:$$d = \frac{\bar{y} - \mu_0}{s}$$Cohen's$d$indicates how many standard deviations$s$the sample mean$\bar{y}$is removed from$\mu_0.$n.a.Visual representationVisual representation - n.a.Equivalent ton.a. - • One sample$t$test on the difference scores. • Repeated measures ANOVA with one dichotomous within subjects factor. - Example contextExample contextExample context Is the proportion of people with a low, moderate, and high social economic status in the population different from$\pi_{low} = 0.2,\pi_{moderate} = 0.6,$and$\pi_{high} = 0.2$?Is the average difference between the mental health scores before and after an intervention different from$\mu_0 = 0$?Is the average mental health score of office workers different from$\mu_0 = 50$? SPSSSPSSSPSS Analyze > Nonparametric Tests > Legacy Dialogs > Chi-square... • Put your categorical variable in the box below Test Variable List • Fill in the population proportions / probabilities according to$H_0$in the box below Expected Values. If$H_0$states that they are all equal, just pick 'All categories equal' (default) Analyze > Compare Means > Paired-Samples T Test... • Put the two paired variables in the boxes below Variable 1 and Variable 2 Analyze > Compare Means > One-Sample T Test... • Put your variable in the box below Test Variable(s) • Fill in the value for$\mu_0$in the box next to Test Value JamoviJamoviJamovi Frequencies > N Outcomes -$\chi^2$Goodness of fit • Put your categorical variable in the box below Variable • Click on Expected Proportions and fill in the population proportions / probabilities according to$H_0$in the boxes below Ratio. If$H_0$states that they are all equal, you can leave the ratios equal to the default values (1) T-Tests > Paired Samples T-Test • Put the two paired variables in the box below Paired Variables, one on the left side of the vertical line and one on the right side of the vertical line • Under Hypothesis, select your alternative hypothesis T-Tests > One Sample T-Test • Put your variable in the box below Dependent Variables • Under Hypothesis, fill in the value for$\mu_0\$ in the box next to Test Value, and select your alternative hypothesis
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