Sign test  overview
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Sign test  Pearson correlation  Cochran's Q test 


Independent variable  Variable 1  Independent/grouping variable  
2 paired groups  One quantitative of interval or ratio level  One within subject factor ($\geq 2$ related groups)  
Dependent variable  Variable 2  Dependent variable  
One of ordinal level  One quantitative of interval or ratio level  One categorical with 2 independent groups  
Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  
 H_{0}: $\rho = \rho_0$
$\rho$ is the unknown Pearson correlation in the population, $\rho_0$ is the correlation in the population according to the null hypothesis (usually 0). The Pearson correlation is a measure for the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables of at least interval measurement level.  H_{0}: $\pi_1 = \pi_2 = \ldots = \pi_I$
$\pi_1$ is the population proportion of 'successes' for group 1; $\pi_2$ is the population proportion of 'successes' for group 2; $\pi_I$ is the population proportion of 'successes' for group $I$  
Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  
 H_{1} two sided: $\rho \neq \rho_0$ H_{1} right sided: $\rho > \rho_0$ H_{1} left sided: $\rho < \rho_0$  H_{1}: not all population proportions are equal  
Assumptions  Assumptions of test for correlation  Assumptions  


 
Test statistic  Test statistic  Test statistic  
$W = $ number of difference scores that is larger than 0  Test statistic for testing H0: $\rho = 0$:
 If a failure is scored as 0 and a success is scored as 1:
$Q = k(k  1) \dfrac{\sum_{groups} \Big (\mbox{group total}  \frac{\mbox{grand total}}{k} \Big)^2}{\sum_{blocks} \mbox{block total} \times (k  \mbox{block total})}$ Here $k$ is the number of related groups (usually the number of repeated measurements), a group total is the sum of the scores in a group, a block total is the sum of the scores in a block (usually a subject), and the grand total is the sum of all the scores. Before computing $Q$, first exclude blocks with equal scores in all $k$ groups.  
Sampling distribution of $W$ if H_{0} were true  Sampling distribution of $t$ and of $z$ if H_{0} were true  Sampling distribution of $Q$ if H_{0} were true  
The exact distribution of $W$ under the null hypothesis is the Binomial($n$, $p$) distribution, with $n =$ number of positive differences $+$ number of negative differences, and $p = 0.5$.
If $n$ is large, $W$ is approximately normally distributed under the null hypothesis, with mean $np = n \times 0.5$ and standard deviation $\sqrt{np(1p)} = \sqrt{n \times 0.5(1  0.5)}$. Hence, if $n$ is large, the standardized test statistic $$z = \frac{W  n \times 0.5}{\sqrt{n \times 0.5(1  0.5)}}$$ follows approximately the standard normal distribution if the null hypothesis were true.  Sampling distribution of $t$:
 If the number of blocks (usually the number of subjects) is large, approximately the chisquared distribution with $k  1$ degrees of freedom  
Significant?  Significant?  Significant?  
If $n$ is small, the table for the binomial distribution should be used: Two sided:
If $n$ is large, the table for standard normal probabilities can be used: Two sided:
 $t$ Test two sided:
 If the number of blocks is large, the table with critical $X^2$ values can be used. If we denote $X^2 = Q$:
 
n.a.  Approximate $C$% confidence interval for $\rho$  n.a.  
  First compute the approximate $C$% confidence interval for $\rho_{Fisher}$:
Then transform back to get the approximate $C$% confidence interval for $\rho$:
   
n.a.  Properties of the Pearson correlation coefficient  n.a.  
 
   
Equivalent to  Equivalent to  Equivalent to  
Two sided sign test is equivalent to
 OLS regression with one independent variable:
 Friedman test, with a categorical dependent variable consisting of two independent groups  
Example context  Example context  Example context  
Do people tend to score higher on mental health after a mindfulness course?  Is there a linear relationship between physical health and mental health?  Subjects perform three different tasks, which they can either perform correctly or incorrectly. Is there a difference in task performance between the three different tasks?  
SPSS  SPSS  SPSS  
Analyze > Nonparametric Tests > Legacy Dialogs > 2 Related Samples...
 Analyze > Correlate > Bivariate...
 Analyze > Nonparametric Tests > Legacy Dialogs > K Related Samples...
 
Jamovi  Jamovi  Jamovi  
Jamovi does not have a specific option for the sign test. However, you can do the Friedman test instead. The $p$ value resulting from this Friedman test is equivalent to the two sided $p$ value that would have resulted from the sign test. Go to:
ANOVA > Repeated Measures ANOVA  Friedman
 Regression > Correlation Matrix
 Jamovi does not have a specific option for the Cochran's Q test. However, you can do the Friedman test instead. The $p$ value resulting from this Friedman test is equivalent to the $p$ value that would have resulted from the Cochran's Q test. Go to:
ANOVA > Repeated Measures ANOVA  Friedman
 
Practice questions  Practice questions  Practice questions  