Cochran's Q test  overview
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Cochran's Q test  One sample $z$ test for the mean  $z$ test for the difference between two proportions  KruskalWallis test 


Independent/grouping variable  Independent variable  Independent/grouping variable  Independent/grouping variable  
One within subject factor ($\geq 2$ related groups)  None  One categorical with 2 independent groups  One categorical with $I$ independent groups ($I \geqslant 2$)  
Dependent variable  Dependent variable  Dependent variable  Dependent variable  
One categorical with 2 independent groups  One quantitative of interval or ratio level  One categorical with 2 independent groups  One of ordinal level  
Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  
H_{0}: $\pi_1 = \pi_2 = \ldots = \pi_I$
Here $\pi_1$ is the population proportion of 'successes' for group 1, $\pi_2$ is the population proportion of 'successes' for group 2, and $\pi_I$ is the population proportion of 'successes' for group $I.$  H_{0}: $\mu = \mu_0$
Here $\mu$ is the population mean, and $\mu_0$ is the population mean according to the null hypothesis.  H_{0}: $\pi_1 = \pi_2$
Here $\pi_1$ is the population proportion of 'successes' for group 1, and $\pi_2$ is the population proportion of 'successes' for group 2.  If the dependent variable is measured on a continuous scale and the shape of the distribution of the dependent variable is the same in all $I$ populations:
Formulation 1:
 
Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  
H_{1}: not all population proportions are equal  H_{1} two sided: $\mu \neq \mu_0$ H_{1} right sided: $\mu > \mu_0$ H_{1} left sided: $\mu < \mu_0$  H_{1} two sided: $\pi_1 \neq \pi_2$ H_{1} right sided: $\pi_1 > \pi_2$ H_{1} left sided: $\pi_1 < \pi_2$  If the dependent variable is measured on a continuous scale and the shape of the distribution of the dependent variable is the same in all $I$ populations:
Formulation 1:
 
Assumptions  Assumptions  Assumptions  Assumptions  



 
Test statistic  Test statistic  Test statistic  Test statistic  
If a failure is scored as 0 and a success is scored as 1:
$Q = k(k  1) \dfrac{\sum_{groups} \Big (\mbox{group total}  \frac{\mbox{grand total}}{k} \Big)^2}{\sum_{blocks} \mbox{block total} \times (k  \mbox{block total})}$ Here $k$ is the number of related groups (usually the number of repeated measurements), a group total is the sum of the scores in a group, a block total is the sum of the scores in a block (usually a subject), and the grand total is the sum of all the scores. Before computing $Q$, first exclude blocks with equal scores in all $k$ groups.  $z = \dfrac{\bar{y}  \mu_0}{\sigma / \sqrt{N}}$
Here $\bar{y}$ is the sample mean, $\mu_0$ is the population mean according to the null hypothesis, $\sigma$ is the population standard deviation, and $N$ is the sample size. The denominator $\sigma / \sqrt{N}$ is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of $\bar{y}$. The $z$ value indicates how many of these standard deviations $\bar{y}$ is removed from $\mu_0$.  $z = \dfrac{p_1  p_2}{\sqrt{p(1  p)\Bigg(\dfrac{1}{n_1} + \dfrac{1}{n_2}\Bigg)}}$
Here $p_1$ is the sample proportion of successes in group 1: $\dfrac{X_1}{n_1}$, $p_2$ is the sample proportion of successes in group 2: $\dfrac{X_2}{n_2}$, $p$ is the total proportion of successes in the sample: $\dfrac{X_1 + X_2}{n_1 + n_2}$, $n_1$ is the sample size of group 1, and $n_2$ is the sample size of group 2. Note: we could just as well compute $p_2  p_1$ in the numerator, but then the left sided alternative becomes $\pi_2 < \pi_1$, and the right sided alternative becomes $\pi_2 > \pi_1.$  $H = \dfrac{12}{N (N + 1)} \sum \dfrac{R^2_i}{n_i}  3(N + 1)$  
Sampling distribution of $Q$ if H_{0} were true  Sampling distribution of $z$ if H_{0} were true  Sampling distribution of $z$ if H_{0} were true  Sampling distribution of $H$ if H_{0} were true  
If the number of blocks (usually the number of subjects) is large, approximately the chisquared distribution with $k  1$ degrees of freedom  Standard normal distribution  Approximately the standard normal distribution  For large samples, approximately the chisquared distribution with $I  1$ degrees of freedom. For small samples, the exact distribution of $H$ should be used.  
Significant?  Significant?  Significant?  Significant?  
If the number of blocks is large, the table with critical $X^2$ values can be used. If we denote $X^2 = Q$:
 Two sided:
 Two sided:
 For large samples, the table with critical $X^2$ values can be used. If we denote $X^2 = H$:
 
n.a.  $C\%$ confidence interval for $\mu$  Approximate $C\%$ confidence interval for $\pi_1  \pi_2$  n.a.  
  $\bar{y} \pm z^* \times \dfrac{\sigma}{\sqrt{N}}$
where the critical value $z^*$ is the value under the normal curve with the area $C / 100$ between $z^*$ and $z^*$ (e.g. $z^*$ = 1.96 for a 95% confidence interval). The confidence interval for $\mu$ can also be used as significance test.  Regular (large sample):
   
n.a.  Effect size  n.a.  n.a.  
  Cohen's $d$: Standardized difference between the sample mean and $\mu_0$: $$d = \frac{\bar{y}  \mu_0}{\sigma}$$ Cohen's $d$ indicates how many standard deviations $\sigma$ the sample mean $\bar{y}$ is removed from $\mu_0.$      
n.a.  Visual representation  n.a.  n.a.  
      
Equivalent to  n.a.  Equivalent to  n.a.  
Friedman test, with a categorical dependent variable consisting of two independent groups.    When testing two sided: chisquared test for the relationship between two categorical variables, where both categorical variables have 2 levels.    
Example context  Example context  Example context  Example context  
Subjects perform three different tasks, which they can either perform correctly or incorrectly. Is there a difference in task performance between the three different tasks?  Is the average mental health score of office workers different from $\mu_0 = 50$? Assume that the standard deviation of the mental health scores in the population is $\sigma = 3.$  Is the proportion of smokers different between men and women? Use the normal approximation for the sampling distribution of the test statistic.  Do people from different religions tend to score differently on social economic status?  
SPSS  n.a.  SPSS  SPSS  
Analyze > Nonparametric Tests > Legacy Dialogs > K Related Samples...
   SPSS does not have a specific option for the $z$ test for the difference between two proportions. However, you can do the chisquared test instead. The $p$ value resulting from this chisquared test is equivalent to the two sided $p$ value that would have resulted from the $z$ test. Go to:
Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs...
 Analyze > Nonparametric Tests > Legacy Dialogs > K Independent Samples...
 
Jamovi  n.a.  Jamovi  Jamovi  
Jamovi does not have a specific option for the Cochran's Q test. However, you can do the Friedman test instead. The $p$ value resulting from this Friedman test is equivalent to the $p$ value that would have resulted from the Cochran's Q test. Go to:
ANOVA > Repeated Measures ANOVA  Friedman
   Jamovi does not have a specific option for the $z$ test for the difference between two proportions. However, you can do the chisquared test instead. The $p$ value resulting from this chisquared test is equivalent to the two sided $p$ value that would have resulted from the $z$ test. Go to:
Frequencies > Independent Samples  $\chi^2$ test of association
 ANOVA > One Way ANOVA  KruskalWallis
 
Practice questions  Practice questions  Practice questions  Practice questions  