Cochran's Q test  overview
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Cochran's Q test  One sample $z$ test for the mean  Binomial test for a single proportion 


Independent/grouping variable  Independent variable  Independent variable  
One within subject factor ($\geq 2$ related groups)  None  None  
Dependent variable  Dependent variable  Dependent variable  
One categorical with 2 independent groups  One quantitative of interval or ratio level  One categorical with 2 independent groups  
Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  Null hypothesis  
H_{0}: $\pi_1 = \pi_2 = \ldots = \pi_I$
Here $\pi_1$ is the population proportion of 'successes' for group 1, $\pi_2$ is the population proportion of 'successes' for group 2, and $\pi_I$ is the population proportion of 'successes' for group $I.$  H_{0}: $\mu = \mu_0$
Here $\mu$ is the population mean, and $\mu_0$ is the population mean according to the null hypothesis.  H_{0}: $\pi = \pi_0$
Here $\pi$ is the population proportion of 'successes', and $\pi_0$ is the population proportion of successes according to the null hypothesis.  
Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  Alternative hypothesis  
H_{1}: not all population proportions are equal  H_{1} two sided: $\mu \neq \mu_0$ H_{1} right sided: $\mu > \mu_0$ H_{1} left sided: $\mu < \mu_0$  H_{1} two sided: $\pi \neq \pi_0$ H_{1} right sided: $\pi > \pi_0$ H_{1} left sided: $\pi < \pi_0$  
Assumptions  Assumptions  Assumptions  


 
Test statistic  Test statistic  Test statistic  
If a failure is scored as 0 and a success is scored as 1:
$Q = k(k  1) \dfrac{\sum_{groups} \Big (\mbox{group total}  \frac{\mbox{grand total}}{k} \Big)^2}{\sum_{blocks} \mbox{block total} \times (k  \mbox{block total})}$ Here $k$ is the number of related groups (usually the number of repeated measurements), a group total is the sum of the scores in a group, a block total is the sum of the scores in a block (usually a subject), and the grand total is the sum of all the scores. Before computing $Q$, first exclude blocks with equal scores in all $k$ groups.  $z = \dfrac{\bar{y}  \mu_0}{\sigma / \sqrt{N}}$
Here $\bar{y}$ is the sample mean, $\mu_0$ is the population mean according to the null hypothesis, $\sigma$ is the population standard deviation, and $N$ is the sample size. The denominator $\sigma / \sqrt{N}$ is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of $\bar{y}$. The $z$ value indicates how many of these standard deviations $\bar{y}$ is removed from $\mu_0$.  $X$ = number of successes in the sample  
Sampling distribution of $Q$ if H_{0} were true  Sampling distribution of $z$ if H_{0} were true  Sampling distribution of $X$ if H0 were true  
If the number of blocks (usually the number of subjects) is large, approximately the chisquared distribution with $k  1$ degrees of freedom  Standard normal distribution  Binomial($n$, $P$) distribution.
Here $n = N$ (total sample size), and $P = \pi_0$ (population proportion according to the null hypothesis).  
Significant?  Significant?  Significant?  
If the number of blocks is large, the table with critical $X^2$ values can be used. If we denote $X^2 = Q$:
 Two sided:
 Two sided:
 
n.a.  $C\%$ confidence interval for $\mu$  n.a.  
  $\bar{y} \pm z^* \times \dfrac{\sigma}{\sqrt{N}}$
where the critical value $z^*$ is the value under the normal curve with the area $C / 100$ between $z^*$ and $z^*$ (e.g. $z^*$ = 1.96 for a 95% confidence interval). The confidence interval for $\mu$ can also be used as significance test.    
n.a.  Effect size  n.a.  
  Cohen's $d$: Standardized difference between the sample mean and $\mu_0$: $$d = \frac{\bar{y}  \mu_0}{\sigma}$$ Cohen's $d$ indicates how many standard deviations $\sigma$ the sample mean $\bar{y}$ is removed from $\mu_0.$    
n.a.  Visual representation  n.a.  
    
Equivalent to  n.a.  n.a.  
Friedman test, with a categorical dependent variable consisting of two independent groups.      
Example context  Example context  Example context  
Subjects perform three different tasks, which they can either perform correctly or incorrectly. Is there a difference in task performance between the three different tasks?  Is the average mental health score of office workers different from $\mu_0 = 50$? Assume that the standard deviation of the mental health scores in the population is $\sigma = 3.$  Is the proportion of smokers amongst office workers different from $\pi_0 = 0.2$?  
SPSS  n.a.  SPSS  
Analyze > Nonparametric Tests > Legacy Dialogs > K Related Samples...
   Analyze > Nonparametric Tests > Legacy Dialogs > Binomial...
 
Jamovi  n.a.  Jamovi  
Jamovi does not have a specific option for the Cochran's Q test. However, you can do the Friedman test instead. The $p$ value resulting from this Friedman test is equivalent to the $p$ value that would have resulted from the Cochran's Q test. Go to:
ANOVA > Repeated Measures ANOVA  Friedman
   Frequencies > 2 Outcomes  Binomial test
 
Practice questions  Practice questions  Practice questions  