# Marginal Homogeneity test / Stuart-Maxwell test - overview

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Marginal Homogeneity test / Stuart-Maxwell test
Marginal Homogeneity test / Stuart-Maxwell test
One sample $z$ test for the mean
You cannot compare more than 3 methods
Independent variableIndependent variableIndependent variable
2 paired groups2 paired groupsNone
Dependent variableDependent variableDependent variable
One categorical with $J$ independent groups ($J \geqslant 2$)One categorical with $J$ independent groups ($J \geqslant 2$)One quantitative of interval or ratio level
Null hypothesisNull hypothesisNull hypothesis
H0: for each category $j$ of the dependent variable, $\pi_j$ for the first paired group = $\pi_j$ for the second paired group.

Here $\pi_j$ is the population proportion in category $j.$
H0: for each category $j$ of the dependent variable, $\pi_j$ for the first paired group = $\pi_j$ for the second paired group.

Here $\pi_j$ is the population proportion in category $j.$
H0: $\mu = \mu_0$

Here $\mu$ is the population mean, and $\mu_0$ is the population mean according to the null hypothesis.
Alternative hypothesisAlternative hypothesisAlternative hypothesis
H1: for some categories of the dependent variable, $\pi_j$ for the first paired group $\neq$ $\pi_j$ for the second paired group.H1: for some categories of the dependent variable, $\pi_j$ for the first paired group $\neq$ $\pi_j$ for the second paired group.H1 two sided: $\mu \neq \mu_0$
H1 right sided: $\mu > \mu_0$
H1 left sided: $\mu < \mu_0$
AssumptionsAssumptionsAssumptions
• Sample of pairs is a simple random sample from the population of pairs. That is, pairs are independent of one another
• Sample of pairs is a simple random sample from the population of pairs. That is, pairs are independent of one another
• Scores are normally distributed in the population
• Population standard deviation $\sigma$ is known
• Sample is a simple random sample from the population. That is, observations are independent of one another
Test statisticTest statisticTest statistic
Computing the test statistic is a bit complicated and involves matrix algebra. Unless you are following a technical course, you probably won't need to calculate it by hand.Computing the test statistic is a bit complicated and involves matrix algebra. Unless you are following a technical course, you probably won't need to calculate it by hand.$z = \dfrac{\bar{y} - \mu_0}{\sigma / \sqrt{N}}$
Here $\bar{y}$ is the sample mean, $\mu_0$ is the population mean according to the null hypothesis, $\sigma$ is the population standard deviation, and $N$ is the sample size.

The denominator $\sigma / \sqrt{N}$ is the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of $\bar{y}$. The $z$ value indicates how many of these standard deviations $\bar{y}$ is removed from $\mu_0$.
Sampling distribution of the test statistic if H0 were trueSampling distribution of the test statistic if H0 were trueSampling distribution of $z$ if H0 were true
Approximately the chi-squared distribution with $J - 1$ degrees of freedomApproximately the chi-squared distribution with $J - 1$ degrees of freedomStandard normal distribution
Significant?Significant?Significant?
If we denote the test statistic as $X^2$:
• Check if $X^2$ observed in sample is equal to or larger than critical value $X^{2*}$ or
• Find $p$ value corresponding to observed $X^2$ and check if it is equal to or smaller than $\alpha$
If we denote the test statistic as $X^2$:
• Check if $X^2$ observed in sample is equal to or larger than critical value $X^{2*}$ or
• Find $p$ value corresponding to observed $X^2$ and check if it is equal to or smaller than $\alpha$
Two sided:
Right sided:
Left sided:
n.a.n.a.$C\%$ confidence interval for $\mu$
--$\bar{y} \pm z^* \times \dfrac{\sigma}{\sqrt{N}}$
where the critical value $z^*$ is the value under the normal curve with the area $C / 100$ between $-z^*$ and $z^*$ (e.g. $z^*$ = 1.96 for a 95% confidence interval).

The confidence interval for $\mu$ can also be used as significance test.
n.a.n.a.Effect size
--Cohen's $d$:
Standardized difference between the sample mean and $\mu_0$: $$d = \frac{\bar{y} - \mu_0}{\sigma}$$ Cohen's $d$ indicates how many standard deviations $\sigma$ the sample mean $\bar{y}$ is removed from $\mu_0.$
n.a.n.a.Visual representation
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Example contextExample contextExample context
Subjects are asked to taste three different types of mayonnaise, and to indicate which of the three types of mayonnaise they like best. They then have to drink a glass of beer, and taste and rate the three types of mayonnaise again. Does drinking a beer change which type of mayonnaise people like best?Subjects are asked to taste three different types of mayonnaise, and to indicate which of the three types of mayonnaise they like best. They then have to drink a glass of beer, and taste and rate the three types of mayonnaise again. Does drinking a beer change which type of mayonnaise people like best?Is the average mental health score of office workers different from $\mu_0 = 50$? Assume that the standard deviation of the mental health scores in the population is $\sigma = 3.$
SPSSSPSSn.a.
Analyze > Nonparametric Tests > Legacy Dialogs > 2 Related Samples...
• Put the two paired variables in the boxes below Variable 1 and Variable 2
• Under Test Type, select the Marginal Homogeneity test
Analyze > Nonparametric Tests > Legacy Dialogs > 2 Related Samples...
• Put the two paired variables in the boxes below Variable 1 and Variable 2
• Under Test Type, select the Marginal Homogeneity test
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Practice questionsPractice questionsPractice questions